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WALLS OF CITY KOTOR

Medieval Fortified Town of Kotor is located at the very end of the Boka Kotorska Bay. It is not known when the earliest settlement was created at the site of today's city. In the ancient period, at the site of today's Kotor, or near it, there was the town of Akuriyum, mentioned by the ancient writers of Livia, Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy. From the 7th century it appeared under the name Dekaderon and Dekatarum, of which the Slovenian name Kotor was derived. The written sources refer to the "Upper Town", which refers to the oldest part of the settlement, at the top of Sv.Ivan Hill, and the "Lower Town", which was ravaged by the Saracens in 841 and by the end of the 10th century, the Macedonian car Samuilo. In the 11th century it is part of the Dukedom state of Vojisavljević. Since 1185 it belongs to Raška, kaka, under the dynasty of Nemanjic, the city is experiencing the economic and cultural flourishing of the city. " After the fall of Raška in 1371, the Hungarian-Croatian kings, later Bosnian King Tvrtko, were ruled by him for some time (1391-1420) to exist as an independent municipality. Nearly four years (1420-1797) is under the auspices of the Venetian Republic, and for more than a century (1814-1918) within the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. All of these frequent state-political changes have left inexhaustible traces in the life of the city and its cultural and historical monuments. Kotor is the oldest urban entity in Montenegro. Its historical core expanded into a triangular space between the hills and the sea, and the Škurde river and the springs Gurdic. Inside the powerful city ramparts, the urban matrix was preserved, mostly its medieval spatial layout with its bendy streets and numerous city squares and "marketplaces", where the main urbanistic accents - churches and palates. Around them are insulae with civic houses, whose façades are made of beautifully treated stone, native or korcula, which gives the whole harmony and specific Mediterranean color. Powerful town ramparts surround the historic city core, stretching along the hem of Mount St. Iwan to its peak, as the most prominent strategic point. Bedemets grew successively in parallel with the expansion of the city. It is not known reliably when it started with their construction. The oldest parts are at the northern gate to the Škurde River, and in the southwestern part along the sea. Their vertical structure was later, when firearms began to be used, reinforced by sloping contraffs on the outside. Since the 15th century, Kotor became a border town and, due to the constant danger of Turkish attacks, expanded and strengthened the ramparts, built the northern door (1540), reconstructing the western (1555) and multiplying the southern gate with the gorge and bastion Gurdic. Along the sea and along the Škurde River, more bastions are built with the dominant Citadel. On the ramparts, they worked until the 19th century, especially in their upper part. Within them, on the slope of the hill, there is the Church of Our Lady of Health, also called Our Lady of Rest, which served as a ritual for the military crews of the upper fortress. The oldest archeologically recorded building inside the city is an early Christian basilica from the 6th century, found beneath today's church of Mary Koleđate. It was, of course, a cathedral church, suggesting that Kotor was already a significant settlement and episcopal city. At the beginning of the 9th century, the town was awarded its patron saint - Trifun (local version - Tripun), to which the memorial church was dedicated in 809. More intensive urban development can only be traced back to the 12th century. Then there is a new large cathedral (1166), followed by numerous Romanesque churches - Sv.Luka (1195), Marija Koleđata (1221), Sv.Ana (early 13th century), St.Paul (1263) and some other churches . From the Gothic buildings, the palace Drago and the remnants of the reconstructed palace of Buca and Byzantium, as well as numerous remains of architectural sculptures - portals, triphors, bifors and other relief embellishments, stand out. In addition to the local builders, sculptors and sculptors, among which a special place belongs to the Kotor Friar Vit, a builder of the monastery of Dečane, there are craftsmen from other coastal cities and some strangers work in Kotor. Craftsmen were especially noted for goldsmiths whose products were widely known that some of them were in other countries. Among their arts and crafts - sacral, votive and luxurious - kept in the treasury of the cathedral and other churches, a special place belongs to the gilded silver pole in the cathedral. During the 13th and 14th centuries there is a group of painters in Kotor, known in the arts as pictores graeci. The written sources of the Kotorska archives of poetics mention Nikola and Manojla at the beginning, and Georgias at the end of the 14th century. Some of these "Greek painters" painted the cathedral and Mary Koleđat, of which only fragments were preserved. Little has been done to our day and from the greatest painter of Kotor - Lovra Marinov Dobričević, attributed to frescoes in the church of Sv. Ane and the picture on the board in the cathedral with the Virgin and Christ, on one, and Ecce homo on the other. Several churches are erected in Baroque style (St. Joseph, Our Lady of Angels, Holy Spirit), palate (Pima, Grubo

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